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For Those Interested in Archaeology

Discussion in 'Free Fire Zone' started by GRW, Jan 19, 2009.

  1. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    Just thought I should try to nudge us back on topic. Hey, have I mentioned before I shook Roy Clarks hand? I have haven't I? It was 1971 so that's old times.
    Well im sufficiently impressed!

    Hope it wasnt a case of fermenting over the years in storage - Wonder if this was the beginning of the downfall of society??
     
  2. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    Wasn't sure whether to put this one in the astronuts thread.
    "A 7,000-year-old Neolithic settlement in modern-day Greece has for the first time been accurately dated down to the precise years it was built.
    The findings could provide a reference point in time to help date other archaeological sites in southeastern Europe.
    Archaeologists from the University of Bern in Switzerland were able to date the site, called Dispilio, using a combination of annual growth ring measurements on wooden building components and an additional out-of-this-world method: cosmic rays. Their research is published in the journal Nature Communications.
    Dating prehistoric wooden elements uses two methods.
    One is dendrochronology, in which tree rings are analysed. A wooden object’s growth rings are impacted by certain climatic and regional conditions which can be compared to other known examples.
    “In central Europe, there is a tree-ring chronology that goes back almost 12,500 years into the past – to the year 10,375 BC,” says lead author, Andrej Maczkowski from the Institute of Archaeological Sciences at the University of Bern. “However, this chronology only applies to certain regions. There is no consistent chronology for the Mediterranean region.”
    The other method is radiocarbon dating, in which the presence of radioactive carbon isotope 14C, or carbon-14, is measured.
    Carbon-14 is absorbed by living organisms through their lifetime. When they die, carbon-14 radioactively decays into other atoms.
    “However, the accuracy of such classifications is, in the best case, within the range of decades,” Maczkowski adds.
    “Until recently, it was therefore believed that dendrochronological dating to the year was only possible if a continuous regional tree-ring chronology was available, which is the case for prehistoric periods in just 3 regions worldwide: this is the southwestern United States, the northern Alpine foothills and England/Ireland,” explains senior author Albert Hafner.
    But in 2012, Japanese physicist Fusa Miyake suggested that a massive influx of cosmic rays, such as those produced by solar flares, would increase the amount of 14C in the atmosphere. Such events today might have major impacts on telecommunications and electronics.
    These global events in history could be used as “markers” in tree rings. Dozens have been identified, including 2 discovered in 2022: one in 7176 BCE and another in 5259 BCE.
    Using the latter of these markers, the archaeologists analysed 787 pieces of timber from Dispilio on Lake Orestida in what is today northern Greece.
    They identified 303 years of growth ring chronology for the region and could show settlement and housebuilding at the site over 188 years between 5328 and 5140 BCE.
    “The Balkans is therefore the first region in the world to benefit from this paradigm shift and to be able to successfully determine absolute dating independently of a consistent calendar,” says Hafner."
    7,000-year-old Neolithic settlement in Greece dated accurately to the year thanks to cosmic rays (cosmosmagazine.com)
     
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  3. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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  4. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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  5. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member WW2|ORG Editor

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  6. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    Interesting, but you wonder just how accurate given that it says further down-"However, the true gender of the individual is unknown due to the absence of pelvic bones."
    "The face of the first man has been revealed 300,000 years after his death.
    Scientists reconstructed the oldest known Homo sapien skull found in Morocco, which was missing the lower jaw when it was uncovered in 2017.
    The team created a digital scan of the cranium, layering it with soft tissue and skin to produce a man described as being 'strong and serene.'
    The ancient skull proved Homo Sapiens appeared 100,000 years earlier than thought and migrated out of Africa before previous evidence had suggested.
    Brazilian graphics expert Cicero Moraes completed the recreation after obtaining data from researchers at the Max Planck Institute.
    'Initially, I scanned the skull in 3D, using data provided by the researchers of Max Planck Institute.
    'Then I proceeded with the facial approximation, which consisted of crossing several approaches, such as anatomical deformation.
    'This is where the tomography of a modern human is used, adapting it so that the donor's skull becomes the Jebel Irhoud skull and the deformation ends up generating a compatible face.'
    The skull's name stems from the site in which it was found.
    The donor skull was also digitized and chosen because it appeared the closest to that of the ancient skull, allowing researchers to fill in the missing parts of the ancient remains.
    Further data from modern humans was used to predict the thickness of the soft tissue, and the likely projection of the nose and other facial structures."
    Face of world's first human - a 'strong and serene' man - is revealed 300,000 years after his death | Daily Mail Online
     
  7. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    "A sprawling Native American city stretching six square-miles and home to roughly 20,000 people disappeared from the Mississippi river valley over 600 years ago.
    And while the 'Cahokia' tribe mysteriously vanished, archaeologists have uncovered artifacts from the society that could provide clues about the group - their culture, language, and even their downfall are still lost to history.
    The team university researchers recently discovered pottery, tools, like 'micro-drills,' and wall trenches at the Illinois site, dating back approximately 900 years.
    Wood particles were also analysed at the site as experts hypothesize the people cut down forests, which degraded the oil and may have caused flooding - an event that could have led to the tribe abandoning the city.
    The excavation is being conducted by students from Saint Louis University (SLU) and neighboring colleges, who are working toward a career in archaeology.
    Students dug out rectangular holes at the site, carefully shaving out dirt to uncover new discoveries.
    Mary Vermilion, associate professor and archaeology at SLU, told SOnyourside: 'The structures that we're finding here and the pottery that we're finding here seem to date to the Sterling Phase of the Mississippian Period — which is approximately 1100 AD to 1200 AD — which is a critical point in the development of the chiefdom because it's like the apex.'
    The finds join hundreds of other sophisticated tools previously uncovered at the site, including shells and beads that had been precision drilled for what scholars believe was a unit of currency."
    New discoveries about 'sophisticated' Native American tribe that mysteriously vanished nearly 600 years ago unearthed in Illinois | Daily Mail Online
     
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  8. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    "Scientists claimed to have discovered the first case of Down syndrome in Neanderthals, which suggested the archaic humans were compassionate caregivers.
    The team analyzed a small cranial fragment from a six-year-old they named 'Tina' who lived more than 1450,000 years ago, finding the fossil had features consistent in children with the genetic disorder.
    The analysis showed that Tina suffered from a congenital pathology in the inner ear that is linked to the genetic disorder, and likely caused severe hearing loss and disabling vertigo.
    The discovery has suggested that Neanderthals were capable of providing altruistic care and support for a vulnerable member of their social group since the child survived years after birth.
    Dr Mercedes Conde-Valverde, professor at the University of Alcalá and lead author of the study, told DailyMail.com: 'Until now, it was only possible to diagnose Down syndrome in fossil specimens through the analysis of ancient DNA.
    'In our work, we have been able to diagnose it through an anatomical study of the inner ear.
    'This opens up the possibility of studying the potential presence of Down syndrome in fossil specimens and thus being able to document its prevalence in past populations.'
    The fossils were found at the Cova Negra, a cave site located in Valencia, which was excavated from 1929 to 2017.
    Researchers recently analyzed remains found during a 1989 dig, uncovering three new fossils that had been previously overlooked.
    While the age cannot be determined, the team believes they are between 146,000 and 273,00 years old based on when the region was inhabited by the now extinct species."
    First case of Down syndrome among Neanderthals discovered in six-year-old child who lived more than 145,000 years ago | Daily Mail Online
     
  9. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member WW2|ORG Editor

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    I've been to the Cahokia site. You can see the Gateway Arch from the top of the pyramid. Our ancestors weren't stupid. Not making that claim for my cousins.
     
  10. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    It seems caveman not only cared for the sick…but the stupid too.
     
  11. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member WW2|ORG Editor

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    The first thing civilization does is it protects the stupid, crazy, and just plain bad.
     
  12. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    Yeah, there seems to be an assumption that only came with civilisation. I don't believe that was ever the case.
     
  13. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member WW2|ORG Editor

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    Mom would insist that the guy who can't remember that FIRE BURNS HIM still gets fed. Was ever thus.
     
  14. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    So many great news stories just appeared, I'm just going to post a link to the page rather than do them all individually. Hope that's ok with admin.
    Archaeologica
     
  15. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member WW2|ORG Editor

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    Saved that link. :D
     
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