Jews were persecuted originaly for religious reasons. First time racial reasons i know off are mentioned in crazed mumblings of chief inqusitor Torquemada when he persecuted Conversos (converted Jews) in Spain after reconquista. Racial argument was more or less forgotten up to the Hitler & co. Gypsies were persecuted more or less becouse they were not part of permanent population (more or less migrant problem) and as such problem for rulers as they did not recognised them as their own. Europe was realy intolerant place comparing to Ottoman empire. Acctualy not realy. Before the wars between Scots and English under Edy longshanks, England was poor country comparing to Scotland (when niece of Scottish king merried he paid her considerable dowry from his own pocket, but when Edies son got married he had to borrow money to pay for marriage). Irish at the time had enough own problems (they were still fighting Vikings and eachother). Welsh state did not interfere with England (and their constant civil wars like king Stephen vs. empress Maude) as they were separate kingdom quite happy to have nothing to do with pesky Brits :grin: . I don't think so. Some time ago i was reading book dealing with Vandals. There were quite a few maps showing national/tribal population distribution in Europe at the time of Roman empire ( since Ceasar to the destruction of Vandal state by Belisar (Justian's general)). Basques are shown on all maps where there are still living now. They were mountain poeple living in the arse of Europe, had nothing anybody wanted (including Romans) and bothered nobody (or they would be destroyed long time ago - like Avari). Problems started more or less with Spanish crown imposing it's rule over them. More or less only time they wholehartedly supported Spanish goverment was during GCE (Guerra Civil Espaniola - Spanish civil war) when they supported Republic as they were promised authonomy under Repulican rule. BTW when dealing with Spain i forgot to mention Catalonians. They were rebelling against the crown (C. Columbus - Colon before he turned mercenary he was a a Catalonian pirate in fleet of his uncle fighting his future boss King of Spain). And use of their language and national flag was banned under Franco. Only outlet alowed to them was FC Barcelona kicking arse of FC Real Madrid (guess why they are still crazy about football :grin: ). There is still talk about independance from Spain.