Hello, I'm coauthor of a new book about U-boats in American waters (title: So Close to Home). When I make public presentations about the story, I'm often asked why there has always been the claim that none of WWII was fought "on American soil." I'm still trying to formulate a complete explanation and wondered if others on this forum could assist? Given that the U-boats were in the mouth of the Mississippi and sinking ships within sight of spectators on land, I wonder if the "soil" part just splitting hairs? Also, the saboteurs (Operation Pastorius) landed here, literally bringing the war to America -- but not fighting, per se. In your opinions, is "on American soil" simply a phrase used to exert American superiority and whitewash our vulnerabilities and unpreparedness for the U-boat attacks? When I am pressed to explain, I often turn to James Bradley's Flags of Our Fathers and say that the post-war patriotism (bond sales, etc) helped to create this myth of American impregnability, part of the reason so many people react with surprise when they read our book and learn for the first time that U-boats were right here, killing Merchant Mariners and even civilians on board ships between American ports. Thank you in advance for addressing this question.