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'Vera Gran: The Accused 'by Agata Tuszynska

Discussion in 'Biographies and Everything Else' started by MichaelBully, Jul 19, 2019.

  1. MichaelBully

    MichaelBully Active Member

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    I wrote this review for 'Amazon UK' a few months ago. A haunting biography indeed. What happens when a Jewish singer and a Jewish pianist ,who both performed at Cate Sztuka manage to survive the Warsaw Ghetto, and emerge at the end of the War, but accuse each other of being collaborators? And the feud lasts for decades. The pianist manages to rebuild their career after experiencing the loss of most of their family in the holocaust, and even gets a posthumous Hollywood film made about him . Official enquiries into the war time years of the singer find nothing incriminating, but her career can never re-start without 'gestapo whore' accusations being slung at her. She survives in a tiny Paris flat until 2009, sinking into bitterness, and paranoia .
    Well this is the tale of Wladyslaw Szpillman v. Vera Gran. I honestly have no idea if the accusations the two of them made against the other contain any truth whatsoever. I am not taking sides but here is the review :

    "Vera Gran's life reads as a tragedy that stretches over decades. Agata Tuszynska managed to interview Vera in the last few years of her life, and slowly built up a rapport -not quite a friendship.- that ended when Vera died in 2009. At this time Vera was living in a tiny flat in Paris, a paranoid recluse, surrounded by memorabilia from her days as a famous Jewish Polish singer, who survived the Warsaw Ghetto.
    The narrative is disjointed, and not followed in a standard timeline. The writer seems keen to avoid a typical 'biography' format. But the salient points of Vera's life are followed, Her rise in 1930's Poland to become a famous singer, who managed to reach the Soviet occupied Poland in 1939. Vera returned to Warsaw and lived in the Jewish Ghetto. She became a popular singer in Cafe Sztuka, famous for its high calibre singers, musicians and cabaret artists . Accompanying her on piano was Wladyslaw Szpilman. The cafe was closed when the deportations east began in the Summer of 1942. On 2nd August 1942, Vera managed to leave the Ghetto, her mother and sisters remained behind to be deported. She survived pretending to be an Aryan Christian, married to a doctor.
    In 1945 Vera found that in post war Poland, she was accused of having been a collaborator. And one of her leading opponents was Wladyslaw Szpilman,. The rest of her life was overshadowed by these claims.....a series of inquiries found that they were unsubstantiated. The feud with Szpilman worsened , with Vera claiming that she had witnessed him working with the Jewish Police in the Ghetto helping them rounding up Jews to be deported East. Leaving Poland and eventually settling in Paris was not enough to end the animosity. Accusations persisted every time Vera's career prospects began to revive, the accusations of being a 'gestapo whore' even disrupted her attempts to perform as far away as Venezuela and Israel.
    As Szpilman's fame increased culminating in 'The Pianist' movie directed by Polanski in 2002, Vera Gran's obsessive paranoia and bitterness accelerated. Both are now dead and posthumously Szpiiman seems to have succeeded.
    The writer meticulously goes through the accusations against Vera, and demolishes them whenever she can. It is apparent that this book is trying clear Vera's name, and has incurred the wrath of people who admire Szpilman in the process. And it has to be said that Vera's counter accusations remain completely unproven.
    It is worth reading for any interested in the Warsaw Ghetto and how its awful legacy remained to torment survivors."
     
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  2. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    To be correct, it wasn't official inquiries, it was some kind of (amateurish) "honor hearings" ran by Jewish organizations.

    The author was hit twice by nuisance (in my opinion) lawsuits in Poland and Germany by Spilman's family, against which being a relatively poor historian she couldn't defend properly (again in my opinion), and anyway in Europe free speech is only weakly protected - in comparison with the US.
    Both resulted in the removal of some facts from her book (the family demanded all facts concerning Szpilman were censored.) One of them was Gran saw Szpilman dragging a woman by her hair to the deportation point, another Szpilman didn't help his starving brother in the ghetto despite his relative wealth.

    It should be mentioned if Szpilman joined the Jewish Police during the deportations it most likely would leave no trace, it was chaotic times, most people were killed anyway so no witnesses.
    As a (rather detested by the masses for the music elitism forced on them by the public radio) radio star he was known by name but not by face.
    He was famous mostly among Polish elites, after all, how many pianists we know today and how many are celebrities.

    On the other hand, it was impossible to be a "Gestapo whore" (or rather a "German whore", Gestapo maintained secrecy well) without being noticed by lots of people. Such cases were well known in the Ghetto, and the women involved became powerful overnight, rivaling in power even the Judenrat. And, although condemned by many, sexual affairs with Germans weren't a crime.
     
  3. MichaelBully

    MichaelBully Active Member

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    Thank you once again wm. Yes I had better go back to the biography and see what I meant by 'official inquiries' . Can always edit the review on Amazon.

    Certainly tough questions are raised-did Spzillman join the Jewish police ? If he did, then this places a different slant on 'The Pianist' movie. Also was Vera Gran writing the truth when she claimed to have seen Spzillman dragging a woman by her hair to deportation? Either he did do these things or didn't. They couldn't both be telling the truth. And we are unlikely to ever know.

    Indeed, I don't believe for a single second that Vera Gran really was a 'Gestapo /German whore'.
     
  4. MichaelBully

    MichaelBully Active Member

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    Could resist adding this to the thread. 'Tango Notturno' by Vera Grann, courtesy of Youtube.

     
  5. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    Szpilman was supposedly rescued by a Jewish policeman - from a dozen or so thousand people murdered that day, which in itself is unbelievable because really why.
    Those thoroughly corrupted guys actually did rescue people - for huge sums of money.

    But such thinking is unhelpful, the survival rate was maybe one in hundred or worse, and most of the survivors survived thanks to some unbelievable miracle.
    Unbelievable survival stories weren't improbable, they were the norm.

    It should be mentioned Szpilman didn't claim Wiera Gran was a collaborator, he only said that other people claimed that (and because of that refused to employ her before she would be able to prove her innocence.)
    So there was no reason for Gran to retaliate against Szpilman, it would be like shooting the messenger.

    And even those people didn't claim she collaborated with the Gestapo. The Gestapo wasn't especially interested in what was going on in the Ghetto and had no use for such badly informed informers.
    She supposedly was buddy-buddy with leaders of the Jewish Gestapo (The Thirteen) ran by two Jewish businessmen who wanted to get rich quick.
    And supposedly she used her powerfull friends to disappear her enemies - for good.
    But other and reputable witnesses testified she was innocent.
     
    Last edited: Aug 2, 2019
  6. MichaelBully

    MichaelBully Active Member

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    Great as always to have your insight wm.
    I have found a website quite hostile to the book 'Vera Gran-The Accused' . Whoever is involved has managed to get hold of the domain veragran.com .
    Seems the Szpilman family took legal action in 2013 and 2016 .against the claims that were raised.
    VERA GRAN - The Accused
     
  7. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    The writer on the website denigrates Agata Tuszynska for faithfully reporting words of an eyewitness (Wiera Gran) and then turns around and introduce pure hearsay evidence (she/he said that some people in the Ghetto had told them this/that), and diligently omits all the pro-Gran testimonies.
     
  8. MichaelBully

    MichaelBully Active Member

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    Tend to agree with your comments wm . Whoever created the website has been quite cunning in obtaining the name veragran.com domain then turning into a hostile site. What interested me more were the claims that Szpillman's family had taken legal action via the Vera Gran biography.
    I have been thinking in more general terms -how were holocaust survivors regarded in Poland in the immediate years following World War 2?
    Peter Novik in his 'Holocaust and Collective Memory' , using the United States as a model, argued that holocaust survivors were often distrusted in the post War-years, and only from the 1970's onward were they began to earn respect. Of course in Poland there would be the added factor of Communist ideology to consider.
     
  9. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    Domain names (e.g. website names) are allocated on first come first serve, no question asked basis so it wasn't that hard.

    There were no Holocaust survivors in post-war Poland, mostly because almost everybody had his/her own harrowing survival story. Survival was too banal to mean anything.
    People didn't see survival as something heroic. You didn't need heroism to survive, you needed friends.

    "Distrusted" was a thing in Israel where initially Jews from Eastern Europe were considered cowards who were afraid to resist, or collaborators (because supposedly only collaborators survived) by the totally ignorant about the realities of the Holocaust local Jews.
    But it changed as Mr. Novik writes in the seventies.
     
  10. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    I'm going to post a contemporary description of the cafe "Sztuka," written by Stanisław Różycki.
    Nobody knows anything about him except he was a damn good writer. He was a Jew so he didn't survive.
    It's a part of the Ringelblum Archive.
    But it's impossible to understand it without his earlier texts, because of his specific humor, writing style, and because today his world is as alien as the surface of Mars - and equally brutal.

    I hope it will be easier to understand at the end why it doesn't matter if Szpilman dragged women by their hair or not.
    So first L'Ours by Stanisław Różycki.

    This is the largest, the most beautifully furnished, and the most popular café. Even though there are several spacious rooms, it has been bustling, full, crowded and packed nonstop since March 10th. It gets even worse at 1-2 and 5-6 p.m.
    Even the most minor deals require a meeting, preferably in a neutral place. And L'Ours is perfect for this because an individual gets no attention here anyway. Moreover, the place is in the centre (at Leszno Street 58) and its luxuriousness and comfort attract "better" clients.
    When you enter the café for the first time you get the impression that the war had never broken out. Except for the armbands there are no traces of war, captivity, or the ghetto. The faces of the clients are not gaunt. On the contrary, people look normal and well-fed. Their clothes are perfectly decent, if not smart. The ladies are dressed up, powdered, and made up like [in pre-war times].
    They promote fashion "made in the ghetto," as if their only problems were the ones they had yesterday, when they jabbered about clothes, movies, and beaus. The men too are wearing very fine clothes. Their ties, sweaters, socks, and handkerchiefs all match the color of their suits, as if nothing has changed.
    Nowadays, we worry only about how to dress warmly in winter, and in summer our only worry is how to conserve as much clothing as possible for winter. By contrast, they worry about buttons, colours, and cuts. Even though the older men are "only" well dressed, the fabric [of their clothes] is brand new (a suit costs 3,000 zlotys), and their shirts are silk and clean (while we wash our shirts less and less often, because we have too few of them, and because washing is costly and damages the clothes).
    They enter the café, nonchalantly bow left and right (they all know each other), choose their table, frown, fuss, order mocha ("but make sure it's real") and pastries ("I would like to order abisynki, croquettes, stefanki",) light up fragrant cigars, and stretch out in the armchairs.
    Having expressed their satisfaction with the music (the orchestra is playing `Si, si, si, this is a tramp's serenade'), the cakes, and the whole café, they get down to business. [...]
    But it is certain that the vast majority is quite rich and well-fed. Many eat 2-3 pieces of cake. Here and there you can see an apple, a ham sandwich, or an alcoholic beverage. It is difficult to say who speculates, accepts bribes, steals, bribes, trades with the Germans, or denounces his compatriots. But it is certain that most clients have an income. There are no saddened, hopeless faces. Laughter often lights up the faces of the young ladies and men. [...]
    Waitresses from "society". Very elegant and good-looking, they wear necklaces, rings, and silk. They add charm and elegance, which dazzles a person coming in from the street grown unaccustomed to such sights. This is a real oasis of luxury, comfort, sybaritism, and carelessness surrounded by the quagmire of hunger, disease, captivity, and utter hopelessness. [...]
    These younger ones behave like kings and look out on their surroundings with a commanding gaze.
     
  11. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    Arizona
    A small bar and café in the basement of the Britania Hotel"' where the richest inhabitants of the ghetto live, having lost their former places of residence. Yes, the rooms are expensive, but you have electricity, central heating, clean bedclothes, breakfast, dinner, and supper on the spot. Along with pleasures and entertainment, too. You do not have to walk out into the dirty street to spend the day in a decent and pleasurable way, away from the spectre of the war and the ghetto.
    Because here you have a bar, a café, and a restaurant. You can play cards, dance, drink, and enjoy the company of women. You name it, you got it. "Heaven on Earth." Music, singing, a positive frame of mind, and wit add amusement to the bleak boredom of the life of a smuggler.
    [...]
    In the hall, there is a conversation about a woman named Irenka who fled from Samuel's bed in the middle fo the night. Everybody has heard about it.
    The waitresses provide more details.
    "I understand Irenka because he is an awful boor. His breath stinks, his palms are cold, and he sweats profusely." How can she know that? "He was a wagoner before the war," adds another one more quietly. "But now he has money to burn."

    Enough. This will do. We can imagine what goes on here after cur-few when no new guests come in. All the clients are rich guests of the Hotel Britania who like to have fun. The waitresses, other women, and music are available all night long ("He gave me loo zlotys today," says the pianist). Vodka, wine, pastries, meat, mayonnaise, fruit— none of it will run out. Everybody is in "good spirits." So the thing is not to worry.


    Splendid
    Gold [famous pre-war composer and pianist] is playing with the best jazz orchestra of the ghetto and Kagan [another famous pre-war composer and pianist] is on the piano. Their playing is excellent, rhythmic, and breath-taking. The biggest hits of the pre-war dance floors and a few Yiddish folk songs. The atmosphere in this basement is overly erotic. [...] the melodies, the lyrics, and the dance rhythm of the songs [...] everything revolves around one topic.
    Obviously, this is the only entirely safe topic (provided that you do not offend public morals). Consequently, the most eagerly copied lyrics are those with erotic allusions. The Negro rhythm of the wild and untamed jazz orchestra is nevertheless dissonant. It grates against the background of the slow, monotonous, and complete bleakness of everyday life. And it is shocking and creates an unnatural, sick atmosphere. It seems unreal, out of this world. This contrast is too brutal. Who needs this much obvious eroticism? As if nowadays such thoughts could indeed occupy our tormented consciousness to such an extent. But the audience gives in, bends to the rhythm, and lets itself be seduced.


    Sztuka
    Converts, educated bourgeois, and the ghetto "elite" call the tune here. Proud that they had been rich before the war, they look with contempt on the nouveau-riche profiteers.
    "The people by the window had bogus bills in our bank and they did not buy them up. They were suspected of malicious bankruptcy and would have ended up in prison had it not been for the war ..." a university-educated waitress informs me with contempt.
    The atmosphere of snobbery, aristocratic affectation, vanity, and fake elegance floods the room. Most clients are pre-war frequenters of the IPS, Ziemianska, Zodiak, SiM, and Europa cafés.
    They keep up their spirits. They do not mingle with "commoners."


    They are somewhat well-read. [...] They were familiar with Tuwim, Słonimski, and Hemar [the most famous pre-war Polish poets - all of Jewish origin].
    Nowadays they make with Szlengel, Fokszański, and Włast. They are excited about "Prince" Goldfeder and Wiera Gran's singing.

    You will hear neither spoken Yiddish nor any Yiddish songs here.
    Their mugs show that they are particularly discontented because they have to mingle with the ghetto masses.
    They want nothing to do with Jewry. Why, they never miss Sunday mass. They hate the street and being equated with the "lousy yids" with whom they have to share their fate.
    Their yearnings become apparent in Sztuka. Its converted co-owner, Mrs. Czarnecka, whose husband works for the Judenrat, walks proudly among the tables, making sure everything is in order. She watches over her sheep. [...]

    The waitresses are educated ladies "of quality," adequately clumsy and with adequate chutzpah. They reluctantly serve the customers and make too many mistakes on the cheques.
    But the aristocracy went through a bad time some time ago in France and not so long ago in Russia, too. So their martyrdom is also sacred. Hence their sweetly suffering superior smile.
     
    Last edited: Aug 15, 2019
  12. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    Interestingly, in the Ringelblum Archive, Wiera Gran (accompanied by Artur Goldfeder - lawyer and pianist) is called the greatest ghetto star, and the only one enjoying a permanent contract.
    Szpilman isn't mentioned at all, although numerous other artists are.
     
  13. MichaelBully

    MichaelBully Active Member

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    Fascinating reading. Thank you for sharing wm. Will want to spend some time going through all the information you have provided.
    Found another on line review of 'The Accused' , via the Canadian Jewish News website which mentions Cafe Sztuka.
    Singing at the Café Sztuka: Vera Gran’s postwar trials
     
  14. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    More on Café Sztuka and Wiera Gran. And more informative than Różycki's "drive-by shooting" writing.
    From: Assimilated Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1940-1943 by Katarzyna Person.

    At first sight, Café Sztuka was no different than over a hundred other cafés that operated in the Warsaw Ghetto. Like most entertainment establishments it was located at Leszno, the thoroughfare of the ghetto, known as the "Broadway of the Jewish Quarter" It took over the site of Café Gertner - a few rather cramped rooms on the ground floor level of an apartment block at 12 Leszno Street.
    Sztuka also had a "garden" - a few fenced-off square meters of pavement adorned by some flowerpots. Like many others, the café offered a daily entertainment program, performed by well-known pre-war artists and widely advertised in Gazeta Zydowska. And just like other cafés in the ghetto, Sztuka had a rather unclear and murky system of ownership, with a number of co-owners, most of them with links to the Gestapo or the Judenrat.
    [...]
    "The café was my home, not only my home but our home," Zbigniew Jankowski, one of its co-owners, testified after the war. His testimony and that of others paint a picture of an establishment run by a close circle of friends, for a similarly exclusive close circle of friends, who before the war were involved in creating Warsaw's blossoming Polish-language light entertainment scene.
    [...]
    One of the biggest stars of the ghetto, Wiera Gran, claimed in her memoirs that out of all jobs offered to her when she moved into the closed quarter, she chose the one in Sztuka became she wanted above all to work with her pre-war acquaintances.° And, indeed, according to witnesses, she was on first-name terms with most of the owners of the café and just like them she would spend all day in Sztuka, and later on even live in rooms attached to the café.

    The picture of an exclusive and perhaps slightly snobbish group was completed by the waitresses, who were heroines of the popular imagination. "Not everyone could be lucky enough to be a waitress in Sztuka," wrote one of the diarists, and others mirrored his words.° Waitresses in Sztuka were "former owners of large apartments, spoiled only daughters whose parents were finding limes hard and money short, and career women without a career."
    According to others, they were daughters of the highest-ranking Judemat officials and were on a first-name basis with the customers.
    [...]
    Even if Tuwim, Hemar, and Slonimsld were indeed gone, Sztuka could still provide its guests with the highest level of entertainment.
    Its stage hosted the likes of Diana Blumenfeld, Marysia Ajzensztadt, Wladyslaw Szpilman, and Artur Goldfeder - the best talent in the ghetto.
    Undoubtedly, in the initial stages of the café's operation, its greatest attraction was Wiera Gran. Gran performed at Sztuka the greatest pre-war hits of literary cabarets, cafés, and theater revues: The Three Letters, A Collection of Waltzes, and Madame Bovary.
    According to one witness of her performances, "She sang them in her low husky voice with a sentimental yearning look on her face." The same person later wrote: "Her songs were about unrequited love, about trees murmuring in the wind to the rhythm of the waltz, about heroic sailors from the Albatross.
    The people who came there wanted to hear such songs; they wanted to close their eyes and to dream they were in pre-war Adria or in Paradise, and that the greatest problems facing them now were these frustrated, unhappy loves." The most popular of Gran's songs in the ghetto was Jej pierwszy bal (pol. Her First Ball)-a song with lyrics by Wladyslaw Szlengel and music written by Szpilman [actually he merely adopted a known song], based on a popular 1937 movie Un carnet de bal.
    The musical composition of "Her First Ball," the lyrics of which evolved around memories of past suitors, was very elaborate and included rumba, Viennese waltz, and Tahitian melodies, ending in a Chopin Mazurka. The sentimental songs sung by Gran brought crowds to Sztuka, including, in the first months after the closure of the ghetto, many guests from the other side of the wall. It seems clear that in the case of Sztuka, the escapism potential, based both on class and national identity factors, was especially strong.
    Even though, as Różycki claims, the intelligentsia guests may have looked with disdain at smugglers and Gestapo collaborators seated at tables next to them, it was these "shady individuals," as they were known by Sztuka's owners, who really paid for the running of the cafe.
    Among the cafe regulars was the Kommissar für den jüdischen Wohnbezirk himself
    [Heinz Auerswald], and so many smugglers that the Gestapo was thought to be particularly interested in getting artists from Sztuka to collaborate and provide them with information extorted from guests. It was also in Sztuka that, as a general rule, drinking sessions of the Jewish Council took place.°

    The clientele had a growing impact on the repertoire of the café. According to Wiera Gran, in the spring of 1942, the morning performances of Marysia Ajzensztadt had to be given up, as the guests were mom interested in doing business than listening to music.

    Despite the fact that Różycki saw Sztuka as a completely "dejudified" establishment, it is clear that the artists performing and writing for Sztuka did not constitute a uniform group and instead represented the whole spectrum of Polish-Jewish culture.
    This included the completely assimilated Wiera Gran, who never considered herself to be part of the Jewish community; pianist Goldfeder, "beautiful like a prince in exile" and with a Christian wife on the "Aryan" side; and also Henryka Lazowert and Wladyslaw Szlengel, who promoted Jewish national and cultural identity in their work.

    Together, these artists created the weekly satirical program Zywy Dziennik (pol. Live Journal), which became a trademark of Sztuka and was copied in numerous other cafés in the ghetto. Żywy Dziennik was first performed in the spring of 1942 and was immediately very successful. The show consisted of sketches written by, among others, singer Pola Braun; satirist Leonid Fokszatisld; and songwriters Andrzej Włast and Józef Lipski. The master of ceremonies and author of most texts was Wladyslaw Szlengel.
     
  15. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    Cafe Sztuka in May 1941. It doesn't look impressive, but the number of light fixtures is. It was war after all.

    Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-134-0794-11A,_Polen,_Ghetto_Warschau,_Juden_in_Nachtclub.jpg Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-134-0794-06A,_Polen,_Ghetto_Warschau,_Juden_in_Nachtclub.jpg Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-134-0793-35A,_Polen,_Ghetto_Warschau,_Unterhaltungsabend.jpg Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-134-0794-02A,_Polen,_Ghetto_Warschau,_Juden_in_Nachtclub.jpg
     
  16. wm.

    wm. Well-Known Member

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    A few of her pictures. She was believed to be of extraordinary beauty, and that produced extraordinary jealousy.
    en_00944111_0007_1349690030.jpg Wiera_Gran_StareMelodie.pl_1475183401.jpg Screenshot from 2019-08-29 09-54-15.png Wiera_Gran_1935_r_StareMelodie.pl_1446729486.jpg
     

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