The Germans had pioneered the use of flame-throwers in World War One at Verdun. The models deployed in the early days of World War One had in fact been developed at the turn of the twentieth century. The German Army tested two models of Flammenwerfer in the early 1900s, one large and one small, both developed by Richard Fiedler. A Flammenwerfer 41 had two cylinders in the horizontal position, the lower one for fuel and the upper for nitrogen. It could fire five blasts of flame at heats of between 700° and 800° C (1292°-1472° F). They used several types in World War II. The Flammenwerfer 35 flame-thrower weighed 35.8kg (78.9Ibs), had a range of 25-30m (27.3-32.8 yards) and duration of fire of 10 seconds. It had a single trigger that operated the pressurised nitrogen tank and ignited the 11.8 Litres (2.6 gallons) of petrol in the fuel container. It was superseded by the Flammenwerfer 40 and 41. The first was a cylindrical 'lifebuoy-type' flame-thrower that weighed only 21.32kg (47Ibs). It had a similar range to the Flammenwerfer 35 but about half the fuel capacity. The Flammenwerfer 41 weighed about 20kg (44Ibs) and used an ignition system of hydrogen that passed over a heated element that in turn set the fuel alight. Five blasts could be fired producing a flame of about 700° to 800° C (1292° to 1472° F). A Flammenwerfer 35 crew advance against an enemy strongpoint. The man stooped behind the operator may be adjusting the pressure on the flame thrower; which had a range of 25-30m (27.3-32.8 yards) and duration of 10 seconds.