AMC In the case of the Rawalpindi the errors started when she was deployed in such a forward position. In that situation at a time when the only detection system was still the Mk1 eyeball even a real cruiser would have been in trouble. Rawalpindi tried to make a run for and only attempted slug it out when this failed. As to whether Rawalpindi's captain should have been damned I think you could argue that for a long time. His only other option would have been surrender. If anything he clung to the RN traditions of not surrendering his ship without a fight had he done so he would have saved his crew but at the possible price of damaging fleet moral and standing. It is worth noting that the two German battleships only avoided interception by Brtish heavies by a whisker. On the subject of AMC's has convoy escorts it is worth noting that the heaviest losses in the North Atlantic were suffered by ships sailing independently. Even a feeble escort like a AMC hoovered up ships into a convoy. If you consider the U boat to be the main enemy the presence of an AMC does cut down on its options. A U boat is not going to surface anywhere near something that can shoot back. So that means its best speed drops to below 5 knots making it impossible for a U boat to stay within striking range of even a slow convoy. Where the AMC idea went pear shaped is when they took on real warships. However it is worth noting that no single type of escort was good against all comers. Corvets and frigates are good again subs but just as useless as an AMC against a surface raider. Destroyers are the best all rounders but still going to struggle against a surface raider. Cruisers or battleships should scare off a surface raider but are useless against subs. Bottom line AMC's were better than nothing, just not much better.