It is widely accepted opinion that Poland was geographically shifted westwards after the war: the Russians allegedly have taken the eastern part of Poland and compensated the Poles with "regained" German territories. I have also shared that opinion until recently when I have found a map of distribution of languages of the German Empire in 1880 (please, see below). If we take that map into consideration, Poles have gained significantly during the first half of twentieth century. At the east, their frontier is almost identical with the language border. Even more, their actual border has been slightly shifted eastwards into the territories of White Russia and Ukraine. However, at the west, north and southwest, their territorial gains are significant – at cost of the Germans. In my view, Poland wasn't shifted but significantly increased territories by annexing German territories. Of course, my conclusions are valid only if we take into account just distribution of languages in late 19th century. On the other hand, Poles may claim that historically Poland was much larger but I cannot escape impression that Poland has taken a bit too much from traditionally German territories.